By Hala Fattah, Frank Caso
A entire consultant to greater than 6,000 years of heritage in Iraq. overlaying themes starting from the traditional Mesopotamian civilizations to the autumn of Saddam Hussein and the struggle in Iraq, it examines the altering panorama of this nation. It makes a speciality of the societies, peoples, and cultures of Iraq.
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Alexander, at age 20 and with the backing of the army, ascended to the throne as Alexander III. Alexander spent the next few years securing his hold on the kingship by forming alliances with important generals, including Antipater, 35 A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRAQ who became the second most powerful man in the kingdom, and Parmenion, who still commanded the forces in Anatolia. He also made war on recalcitrant Greek city-states. , he was ready to turn eastward and continue the war against Persia. No sooner had Alexander begun his long quest for glory than the great king of Persia, Darius III Codomannus, tried to make peace, but Alexander preferred to have the Persian Empire.
One of the recurrent themes of Assyrian history, then, is perpetual expansion; even when military setbacks occurred, as they often did, the memory of earlier successful raids created a momentum that was not easily forgotten. One of the first actions normally undertaken by a reigning Assyrian king was to step up military offensives to recover 21 A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRAQ 22 IRAQ, THE FIRST SOCIETY lands lost, either in the south or the west. Oppenheim has made a provocative case for the relentless Assyrian compulsion to go to war.
Cities far and wide had to acknowledge the supremacy of both ruler and deity in everything from ceremonial rituals to everyday affairs. Assyrologist Stephanie Dalley notes that the greeting sent from one provincial ruler to another in Hammurabi’s time began with the customary, “May Shamash and Marduk grant you long life,” signifying the by-now standard insertion of Marduk among the Mesopotamian pantheon of gods (Dalley 2002, 44). Such was the solidity of the state built by Hammurabi that the five kings who succeeded him each ruled for no less than 20 years, a “situation that is usually indicative of political stability” (Van De Mieroop 2004, 111).