A Dictionary of Literary Symbols (2001) by Michael Ferber

By Michael Ferber

This is often the 1st dictionary of symbols to be according to literature, instead of "universal" pyschological archetypes, myths or esoterica. Michael Ferber has assembled approximately 200 major entries sincerely explaining and illustrating the literary symbols that all of us come upon (such as swan, rose, moon, gold), in addition to thousands of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, yet its entries diversity largely from the Bible and classical authors to the 20th century, taking in American and ecu literatures. Its educated sort and wealthy references will make this e-book a necessary software not just for literary and classical students, yet for all scholars of literature.

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14–17). 19 Bat Bat Until they are examined closely, the most notable features of bats are that they fly at night (though they are visible only at twilight), utter a thin squeak, and often dwell in caves. Though Aristotle knew they were mammals, most ancients took them as a kind of bird. 33), Milton lists “owls, bats, and such fatal birds” (Eikonoklastes, sec. 15), and as late as Saint-Pierre we find “birds of prey, such as the bat, the owl, the eagle owl” (Harmonies de la Nature [1814], p. 268). In both Greek and Latin their name has an element meaning “night” or “evening”: Greek nukteris comes from nukt-, “night,” and Latin vespertilio, as Ovid tells us, comes from vesper, “evening” (Met.

Ovid describes bats as crying levi stridore, “in thin squeaks” (Met. 492–93). Hence ghosts, whether or not they are likened to bats in other respects, make batlike cries. 101). 41 make a similar sound. 24); all four of Shakespeare’s verbs imitate the cry. From their connection with the underworld, features of bats were attributed to the devil. 49–50). It infernal and nocturnal character was thus well established before the nineteenth-century vampire stories, notably Polidori’s The Vampyre and Stoker’s Dracula.

313; White Doe of Rylstone 1895). 710); Shelley seems to reply when he claims that fame lodged in human hope will “Survive the perished scrolls of unenduring brass” (Laon and Cythna 3747). See Metal.

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