By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The impact of the crusades on the Near East
Another compiler reflecting the same trend is 'Ali ibn-Zaid ai-Baibaqi (d. 1169),99 who is chiefly known for his biographical dictionary, entitled Ta'rikh }Jukama' ai-ls/am (The history of the learned men of Islam), which was a supplement to an earlier biographical dictionary of learned men, the $iwan ai-}Jikmah of Mubammad as-Sijistiini of the second half of the tenth century. AJ-Baihaqi also wrote, in Persian, a history of his birthplace, Baihaq, which he completed a year before his death. The shift in emphasis from general to local histories is likewise demonstrated by the work of 'Umarab ibn-'Ali ai-Yamani (d.
SOrah IX:29. 16 A HIS10RY OF THB CRUSADES v It bas already been suggested that Arab culture was a palace culture, flourishing under the patronage of caliph, sultan, or prince, its benefits rarely reaching beyond the confmes of the royal or princely court. It should be added, too, that Arab culture has been, for the most part, a masculine culture, in which women played a very minor role. By the end of the tenth Christian century Arab women had lost the greater part of their freedom and dignity. Under the Buwaihids, the system of total segregation of the sexes and stringent seclusion of women had become general.
Between al-Ghazzali and Maimonides no Arab philosopher of note can be cited, perhaps because the main concern of the century was not in speculation but rather in systematization, as evidenced in the works of Fakhr-ad-Dln ar-Riizi (d. 1209) and Najm-ad-Dln an-Nasafi (d. 1142), whose 'Aqii'id (Articles of faith) became the most popular statement of the Moslem creed, the nearest thing to a Moslem catechism, forming the basis for innumerable commentaries and glosses. The trend toward systematization is further seen in the intellectual activities of ash-Shabrastiini (d.