Abelian Group Theory and Related Topics by Gobel R., Hill P., Liebert W. (eds.)

By Gobel R., Hill P., Liebert W. (eds.)

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Subsequently, Mindell et al. (1999) added an additional ratite species and a suboscine songbird to their analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. The results were similar with respect to the placement of the songbirds at the root. However, in this case they could not reject the traditional arrangement with the basal split occurring between the ratites and the rest of the avian orders. E. L. Cracraft Problems in avian systematics Taxon sampling We interpret these results as evidence that both inadequate character and taxonomic sampling can impede insights into avian interordinal relationships.

The distribution of datasets in character-space. Nu DNA and amino acid sequences sampled in this study are mapped onto the chromosomes of Homo sapiens. 1 = 12S rDNA, 2 = 16S rDNA, 3 = NADH 1, 4 = NADH 2, 5 = CO1, 6 = CO2, 7 = 5'ATPase 8, 8 = 3' ATPase 8 + ATPase 6, 9 = CO3, 10 = NADH 3, 11 = NADH 4L, 12 = NADH 4, 13 = NADH 5 + 5' NADH 6, 14 = 3' NADH 6, 15 = cytochrome b, 16 = morphology (dental, basicranial, postcranial, and soft anatomical characters), 17 = SINE retrotransposons, 18 = β-casein, 19 = κ-casein, 20 = γ-fibrinogen, 21 = IRBP, 22 = β-hemoglobin, 23 = vWF, 24 = α-lactalbumin, 25 = pancreatic ribonuclease, 26 = protamine P1, 27 = α-hemoglobin, 28 = α-crystallin.

Adding taxa versus adding characters When designing a systematic study, one must consider the trade-off, in both time and resources, between increasing taxon sampling and increasing the number of characters for a smaller subset of ingroup taxa. It is not clear which approach, denser taxon sampling or greater character sampling, has a greater effect on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Several papers, many of which employ numerical simulations, have discussed the ramifications of adding characters versus adding taxa (Hillis, 1996; Kim, 1996; Graybeal, 1998; Hillis, 1998; Poe and Swofford, 1999).

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