By D. O. Hall, P. J. de Groot (auth.), Karl W. Böer (eds.)
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This increase in food production has led to changes in rural diets which now include larger amounts of meat, poultry, eggs, and fruit. lOO ,101,102,103 The growth in output is entirely the resu:lt of increased yields. The crop area is actually down because of less multicropping and a reduction in land under cultivation. 6 Mt in 1983. The production increases for individual commodities are impressive. 7 Mt in 1984. 4 Mt). 5 Mt. BIOMASS FOR FUEL AND FOOD 17 These increases in agricultural production are largely due to government incentives to farmers to grow more food.
Part of the reason for this decline in self sufficiency is a general lack of investment in agriculture. 105 The outstanding exception is Saudi Arabia, where the government has spent a total of $20 bn since 1980, mostly on price subsidies. 3 Mt in 1983-84. 5 M. Harvests on this scale have depended on irrigation from subterranean wells (the area only receives 10 cm of rainfall each year). Concern is now being expressed over this high level of water utilization and consequent depletion of reserves.
Although $5 billion was devoted to agricultural projects in Africa between 1973- BIOMAss FOR FUEL AND FOOD 27 -80, there was no sizable increase in food crop production for local consumption. The high yields of many export crops such as cotton, tea and tobacco are obtained through the benefits of research and the many other necessary agricultural inputs which are largely imported and often provided by multinationals attracted to the profitable agribusiness. l3O Today more than one quarter of the cultivated land in the developing countries is devoted to cash crops.