Alternative Wastewater Treatment: Low-Cost Small Systems, by Robert W. Seabloom (auth.), Arild Schanke Eikum, Robert W.

By Robert W. Seabloom (auth.), Arild Schanke Eikum, Robert W. Seabloom (eds.)

Following the top of worldwide battle II there has been an important migra­ tion of inhabitants within the usa and Scandinavian international locations to city components. because of this migration and partially as a result public works moratoria imposed in the course of the struggle, a huge seasoned­ gram of sewer building used to be instigated, which led to the gathering and next focus of enormous volumes of waste­ water at unmarried discharge issues. because the assimilative skill of those receiving waters used to be surpassed, it ended in or annoyed present water toxins difficulties in those waters. To mitigate this degradation of water caliber an incredible software to build wastewater remedy amenities was once instigated. additionally, quite a lot of cash have been spent on study to enhance the know-how of the normal assortment and therapy proposal. by contrast, the wastewater disposal challenge of the agricultural homeowner acquired little awareness, and generally the septic tank soil absorption method (ST-SAS) was once the meantime resolution. lately there was a basic switch within the inhabitants progress trend within the US and Scandinavian nations. it seems that an outstanding many of us are relocating again to rural parts the place they appear to want the suburban or small city envi­ ronment, but whilst wish all of the conveniences of city lifestyles. the availability of right wastewater disposal amenities offers a truly puzzling challenge, as the capital and working bills of traditional sewers tend to be financially impractical for rural areas.

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Additional resources for Alternative Wastewater Treatment: Low-Cost Small Systems, Research and Development Proceedings of the Conference held at Oslo, Norway, September 7–10, 1981

Example text

Of parti- cular importance are those activities which not only consume water, but also produce wastewaters that require treatment and disposal; namely, the interior water-using activities. 25 A. S. Eikum and R. W. ), Alternative Wastewater Treatment, 25-42. Copyright © 1982 by D. Reidel Publishing Company. 'C. BOYLE ET AL. S. residential dwellings (Table 1). Ta bl e 1 . Average . d ent~a . 1 Waste F1 ow Ch aracter~st~cs . 5 61. 4 100 Clotheswashing Dishwashing Garbage Grinder Miscellaneous Total (a) Based on results reported in ref.

S. has generally concentrated on disposal systems, although some efforts have been expended on treatment systems prior to disposal of wastewaters. Treatment studies have primarily centered on: 1. The effects of treatment on disposal 2. The performance of alternative treatment devices 3. Modifications to septic tanks. The influence of treatment efficiency on subsurface soil disposal has been studied by several investigators. There is general agreement that improved effluent quality can result in less-intensive clogging of coarser, unstructured soils, such as sands.

Eikum and R. W. ), Alternative Wastewater Treatment, 45-71. Copyright © 1982 by D. Reidel Publishing Company. J. F. KREISSL 46 The initial effort was to develop an overall understanding of the state-of-the-art. This included analysis of wastewater characteristics, both in quantity and quality, transmission, treatment, and disposal. These efforts were directed at both on-site treatment and disposal and collection from small groups of homes to entire communities for centralized treatment. The remaining discussion relates only to the on-site treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater aspects of the USEPA research program.

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