By Arthur L. Schawlow (auth.), Raymond Y. Chiao (eds.)
This Festschrift is a suite of essays contributed by means of scholars, colleagues, and advert mirers to honor an eminent student on a distinct anniversary: Charles tough Townes at the social gathering of his eightieth birthday, July 28, 1995. In 1964, Townes shared the Nobel Prize in physics with Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov and Nikolai Gen nadyevich Basov "for primary paintings within the box of quantum electronics, which has ended in the development of oscillators and amplifiers in keeping with the maser-laser precept. " His contributions have lined a wider zone, even though. His fruitful pursuits spanning numerous many years have incorporated many clinical matters, includ ing, microwave spectroscopy and astrophysics (other articles during this quantity will extend extra in this point). He has additionally contributed to public provider, having served because the chairman of the technology and know-how Advisory Committee for NASA's Apollo application, and as a member and vp of the President's technology Advisory Committee. because the huge, immense breadth of contributions from his scholars indicates, he has informed students who're now in a variety of fields. The contributions from his many admirers, between whom are 9 fellow Nobel laureates, attest to his effect on many disciplines starting from electric engi neering to medication. His impression extends even to theology, as is indicated via one essay. The greatly overseas personality of this Festschrift displays his deep trust within the overseas, common nature of science.
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Additional resources for Amazing Light: A Volume Dedicated To Charles Hard Townes On His 80th Birthday
P. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 282 (1954). N. G. Basov and A. M. Prokhorov, JETP 27,431 (1954). D. Kleppner, H. M. Goldenberg, and N. F. Ramsey, Applied Opt I, 55 (1962). C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy, McGraw-Hill (1955). V. S. Letokhov, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 6, 597 (1967). K. M. , Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973). G. Kramer, B. Lipphardt, C. O. Weiss, Proc. of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, p. 39 (1992). V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotaev, Non-linear Laser Spectroscopy, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
The state of the art and further progress of this scale are important for numerous applications in metrology, physics and navigation. The high accuracy of the cesium standard is based on the small value of transition line width y and very small ratio y/wo ~ 10- 8 _10- 9 , which was achieved due to dramatic progress in the methods of radio spectroscopy . Nowadays the methods of laser spectroscopy permit the elimination of the Doppler broadening , resulting in resonances with the relative width y/wo ~ 10- 11 ••• 10- 12 in the optical domain of spectra.
The latter, of course, includes the saturated absorption, As, in cavity 2. 6) and h and h are related by Eq. 3). 6), along with Eqs. 3), permit determining the output laser intensities PI and P2. However, the equations are very nonlinear and the analytic solution of Eq. 6) is complicated . Eliminating II in Eq. 7) 4. The Laser Stabilitron 31 ~r-~--~--------------====~---' Q1. Qz. 2. Behavior of the effective loss L eff , as a function of II for different values of A (solid curves) and graphical solution for the laser oscillation condition for representative parameters.