American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological by Frank L. Smith III

By Frank L. Smith III

Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide protection given that not less than global conflict II. traditionally, even though, the U.S. army has missed study, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the USA began spending billions of bucks in step with 12 months on scientific countermeasures and organic detection platforms. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dep. of health and wellbeing and Human prone instead of the dept of safety. Why has the U.S. army overlooked biodefense and allowed civilian enterprises to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this complicated and mostly untold tale approximately technology, know-how, and nationwide security.

Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have triggered either army forget and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed companies, influential rules approximately kinetic struggle have undermined protection opposed to organic conflict. The impact of those principles on technological know-how and know-how demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide protection coverage is pushed through threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the tips at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense may help clear up different vital difficulties that variety from radiation guns to cyber attacks.

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Their content is not the inevitable byproduct of generic interests in funding and autonomy). 69 These ideas provide a common framework for interpreting reality. They only highlight certain aspects of reality, however, and so organizational frames both enable and constrain action. Some actions are enabled because the problems and solutions they involve are salient inside the organization’s dominant frame of reference. One consequence is that the science and technology used for these problems will benefit from ample if not excessive resources.

70 External or residual issues are systematically deprived of resources, regardless of their potential significance, in part because they fall victim to the organizational stereotypes described below. These divergent outcomes are two sides of the same coin. Actions inside an organization’s dominant frame are enabled by a path-dependent process of learning and selective attention. Initially, a wide range of problems and solutions could capture the organization’s attention, but those selected early are preferentially elaborated on through learning.

89 This same assumption survived the end of the Cold War, leaving the Army unprepared to counter insurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan. 90 And long before counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan were over, the Navy and Air Force were emulating the Army after Vietnam and adopting the “similarly designed” concept of Air-Sea Battle for conflict with China. 91 Of course, my characterization of the military’s kinetic frame is not beyond reproach. One critique is that the armed services perform several nonkinetic functions.

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