By Russell H. Tuttle
In this masterwork, Russell H. Tuttle synthesizes an enormous study literature in primate evolution and behaviour to give an explanation for how apes and people advanced when it comes to each other, and why people grew to become a bipedal, tool-making, culture-inventing species targeted from different hominoids. alongside the best way, he refutes the influential conception that males are basically killer apes--sophisticated yet instinctively competitive and damaging beings.
Situating people in a wide context, Tuttle musters convincing facts from morphology and up to date fossil discoveries to bare what early primates ate, the place they slept, how they discovered to stroll upright, how mind and hand anatomy advanced concurrently, and what else occurred evolutionarily to reason people to diverge from their closest kin. regardless of our genomic similarities with bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, people are precise between primates in occupying a symbolic area of interest of values and ideology in accordance with symbolically mediated cognitive methods. even if apes show behaviors that strongly recommend they could imagine, salient components of human culture--speech, mating proscriptions, kinship buildings, and ethical codes--are symbolic structures that aren't happen in ape niches.
This encyclopedic quantity is either a milestone in primatological examine and a critique of what's recognized and but to be found approximately human and ape potential.
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Extra resources for Apes and Human Evolution
Nomascus spp. (six species) have 2n = 52 chromosomes. Hoolock spp. (two species) have 2n = 38 chromosomes, and Symphalangus syndactylus has 2n = 50 chromosomes. Male and female Symphalangus syndactylus have welldeveloped laryngeal sacs whereas those of Hoolock hoolock are small (Plate 2 bottom). 4). In possessing ischial callosities, the gibbons resemble the Old World monkeys. 78 They are the only extant apes that do not build nests. Except for siamang, hylobatid apes have the densest coats among the catarrhine primates.
The males become basically black, except for white markings on the head, hands, feet, and pubic region. Females only acquire a dark ventral patch that extends from throat to groin (Plate 1). 81 Skeletally and fully fleshed, the lesser apes have a gracile, almost spidery appearance, though siamang are somewhat stockier than the smaller species. 10). 9. Skull of a male white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). (A) Right lateral view. (B) Frontal view. (C) Basal view. (D) Dorsal view. horn-rimmed spectacles.
3. 53 Consequently, Homo sapiens is devoid of races in the sense of zoological subspecies. 54 Therefore, I arbitrarily employ a scheme with six species of great apes: Gorilla gorilla, Gorilla berengei, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, and Pongo abelii. 57 Apes travel less widely than people do largely because we command a remarkable variety of transportation contraptions and beasts of burden, and we can ourselves carry heavy loads of food, water, firewood, and tools. Apes might wade, but deep water is an effective barrier to them because they do not swim.