Principles of the Theory of Heat: Historically and by Ernst Mach (auth.), Brian McGuinness (eds.)

By Ernst Mach (auth.), Brian McGuinness (eds.)

xi should still desire for "first and ultimate" from any old research, together with his personal, was once that "it will not be too tedious. " II That wish is mostly learned in Mach's historic writings, such a lot of that are as full of life and engaging now as they have been after they seemed. Mach didn't persist with any current version of historic or philosophical or clinical exposition, yet went at issues his personal manner combining a number of the techniques as had to achieve the pursuits he set for himself. while he's at his most sensible we get a feeling of the Mach whom William James met on a trip to Prague, the Mach whose 4 hours of "unforgettable dialog" gave the 40 yr outdated, good traveled James the most powerful "impression of natural highbrow genius" he had but acquired, and whose "absolute simplicity of demeanour and winningness of smile" captivated him thoroughly. 12 reflect on, for instance, the 1st few chapters of this e-book, rules of the idea of warmth, which Mach devotes to the concept of temperature, that the majority basic of all thermal thoughts. He starts off via attempting to hint the trail that leads from our sensations of cold and hot to a numerical temperature scale.

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36 CHAPTER I The abscissae represent the volumes. The curves of the figure extend from the second to the fourteen thousandth part of the volume of carbonic acid gas at 1 atmosphere of pressure and 0 DC. The dotted line bounds the region within which the carbonic acid gas can exist partly in a liquid and partly in a gaseous form. 25. Figure 16 may, by a slight modification, be made to represent the behavior of gases and vapors. This modification is shown in Figure 25. The pressure of the vapor at a given temperature ascends in the curve mn; but at n liquefaction begins.

The difficulty of handling the first air thermometers and their dependence on the pressure of the atmosphere naturally led to the desire for some more convenient instrument. The philosophical impulse to extend the results of single observations to new cases, the impulse to generalize, was never wanting. " Reflections of this character must have prompted investigators to inquire whether the property observed in connection with the air could not be demonstrated also in connection with liquids. Possibly a French physician, Jean Rey (1631), was the inventor of the liquid thermometer 21 • Viviani attributed the invention to Ferdinand n, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THERMOMETRY 15 Grand Duke of Tuscany, who in 1641 constructed sealed spirit thermometers.

13. Boyle in 1662, and Mariotte in 1679, enunciated the experimental law that the product of the volume of a given mass of gas at constant temperature by the pressure which it exerts on unit of surface is constant. If a mass of air of volume v be subjected to a pressure p, it will assume, on the pressure's increasing to p' = np, the volume v' = vln; whence v pv=np- =p'v'. n If we represent the v's as abscissae and the corresponding p's as ordinates, the areas of the rectangles formed by the p's and v's will in all cases be equal.

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